Nowadays, there are more and more types of carpets, which can be divided according to their uses and functions, such as commercial carpets, household carpets, decorative carpets, and so on. Similarly, the crafts of making carpets are also colorful and diverse, mainly divided into needle-punched carpets, cluster carpets, woven carpets, and weaving carpets. We will focus on introducing the production techniques of different mats.
Needle-punched mats are made from mats by repeatedly penetrating the layers of the web with crochet needles moving up and down. The production process is to mix the fibers, then card them into a web, and then overlap several layers of webs according to the thickness of the carpet.
Pre-needling and pattern needling→winding→finished product.
Raschel printed carpets are a new breed of carpets that have emerged in recent years. This kind of printed carpet is made of loose acrylic fiber as blanket material, polyester filament as ground warp material, and is woven by Raschel knitting machine. After cationic dye printing, steaming, water washing, tenter drying, repeated ironing, cutting, and compounding with other base fabrics, it is made into a carpet. Printed carpets have more patterns and higher output value than yarn-dyed carpets. The selection of flame-retardant-modified acrylic fibers is beneficial to the realization of the carpet's flame-retardant function.
The tufted carpet uses a tufting machine to penetrate the tufting needles with tufted yarns into the base fabric to form an array of tufts with uniform spacing tufts are fixed on the reverse side with an adhesive. The base material is jute, and the tufting material is usually polypropylene-colored yarn. Tufted carpets are divided into four types according to the characteristics of the tuft structure: flat cut pile, flat pile loop pile, concave and convex loop pile, and cut pile loop pile combination. Jacquard tufted carpets can also be woven with jacquard tufting machines.
The tufted carpet production process is generally:
Dyed tufted silk → tufting → inspection of darning → gluing → (composite base fabric) → drying → shearing → shearing → finished product.
The traditional flocking method or plain weave method is used for weaving carpets, and weaving is carried out on vertical iron and wooden beams with tools such as machetes, iron rakes, winches, and shuttles.
The technological process is generally as follows: yarn dyeing → warp feeding → priming → warp searching → knotting → flat carpet → slicing → carpet washing → air drying.
The processes involved in the application of dyes and chemicals in the production of woven carpets are mainly the washing and dyeing of wool. From raw wool to weaving carpet cashmere yarn, it has to go through a series of treatments.
The general process is: scouring → carding → spinning → dyeing → drawing → weaving.
The purpose of washing wool is to wash away the grease and dirt attached to the wool fiber.
Wool washing should go through the process of water washing→alkali washing→water washing→acid washing→water washing. Clean spinnable wool can be obtained after washing wool.
Dyeing is to color the wool. Traditional dyeing uses natural vegetable and animal dyes such as saffron, rhubarb, and madder. In modern times, synthetic dyes are often used for dyeing. Acid complex dyes and reactive wool dyes are commonly used dyes for wool yarn dyeing. Because the pile yarn used in the carpet is relatively thick, the root and dyed wool yarn should be twisted into pile yarn and wound into a ball.
Weaving carpet is a double-layer weaving method using a carpet loom, which is woven from the warp, weft, and cashmere yarns through the plain weave, twill weave, and weft weave. Its weaving principle is basically the same as ordinary looms, but it is equipped with a pile-forming mechanism, which weaves piles and fixes them on the base fabric, and forms a carpeted surface with piles standing by cutting piles.
A variety of crafts have created different carpets. When choosing a carpet, it is not only necessary to determine the corresponding product type, but it is also best to understand some of the techniques needed to make the carpet to ensure that the most suitable carpet is selected.